Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection.
Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey viz. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content high osmolarity that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes.
The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar.
Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle s may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys against several health disorders of humansand hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities.
Antimicrobial agents are essentially important in reducing the global burden of infectious diseases.
However, as resistant pathogens develop and spread, the effectiveness of the antibiotics is diminished. This type of bacterial resistance to the antimicrobial agents poses a very serious threat to public health, and for all kinds of antibiotics, including the major last-resort drugs, the frequencies of resistance are increasing worldwide .
Therefore, alternative antimicrobial strategies are urgently needed, and thus this situation has led to a re-evaluation of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies, such as plants and plant-based products, including honey  — .
The use of traditional medicine to treat infection has been practiced since the origin of mankind, and honey produced by Apis mellifera A. Currently, many researchers have reported the antibacterial activity of honey and found that natural unheated honey has some broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when tested against pathogenic bacteria, oral bacteria as well as food spoilage bacteria .
In most ancient cultures honey has been used for both nutritional and medical purposes. The belief that honey is a nutrient, a drug and an ointment has been carried into our days, and thus, an alternative medicine branch, called apitherapy, has been developed in recent years, offering treatments based on honey and other bee products against many diseases including bacterial infections. At present a number of honeys are sold with standardized levels of antibacterial activity.
The Leptospermum scoparium L. Tan et al  reported that Tualang honey has variable but broad-spectrum activities against many different kinds of wound and enteric bacteria.Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some related insects. Bees store honey in wax structures called honeycombs. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucoseand has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose table sugar.Klippan single
Fifteen millilitres 1 US tablespoon of honey provides around kilojoules 46 kilocalories of food energy. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity. Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply.
By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hivespeople have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are:. Leaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus honey stomach or cropwhich lies just dorsal to its food stomach.
Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity
The forager bees then return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees then use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles repeatedly until it is partially digested.
The bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality.
Some wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica found in South and Central America, are known to feed on nectar and produce honey. Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolorconsume honey, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies or from domesticated beehives. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers typically pacify the bees using a bee smoker.
The smoke triggers a feeding instinct an attempt to save the resources of the hive from a possible firemaking them less aggressive, and obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from it either by crushing or by using a honey extractor. The honey is then usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris. Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were often sacrificed to conduct the harvest.
The harvester would take all the available honey and replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar often in the form of a "candyboard".
The amount of food necessary to survive the winter depends on the variety of bees and on the length and severity of local winters. Many animal species are attracted to wild or domestic sources of honey.
Because of its composition and chemical properties, honey is suitable for long-term storage, and is easily assimilated even after long preservation. Honey, and objects immersed in honey, have been preserved for centuries. In its cured state, honey has a sufficiently high sugar content to inhibit fermentation. If exposed to moist air, its hydrophilic properties pull moisture into the honey, eventually diluting it to the point that fermentation can begin.Best Answer 11 years ago.
Do you need the viscosity reduced permanently? Then you do need to "dilute" it somewhat, by adding water or some other liquid, as Lemonie wrote below. Given how "potent" honey is, a small amount of water shouldn't be noticeable. If you just need it more fluid temporarily, for blending into a recipe or drink, then just heat it up. I recommend Flashflint's recommendation of a hot water bath, rather than microwaving.
The latter is notoriously non-uniform. Answer 5 years ago. Hello Kelsey, I would like this idea a lot, but I am concerned that the water is not what was being made previously. One reason is we smoked the product directly after applying it, and it did not seem to like there was an evaporation factor.
I have been given a idea that due to the current trend towards vaporizing cigarettes that maybe if a small amount of vaporizing fluid with either the tobacco component removed might be the way to go, but I've never tried it. If anyone's tried it.
I would like to hear from them.Usb hid controller
When I was young in the mids. I would be able to get honey oil, which was marijuana oil that had a thinner viscosity than what I can find today. This product you were able to actually poor onto pot to be smoked. How can a person get that viscosity? Back in the 70s the pot wasn't terribly great good pot was expensive and hard to get.
You could get Colombian by the bucket loads, but ended up with more stems and seeds on the record album, then weed what was odd is like I said, the Honeywell was great.
The Thai sticks were big and fat and woods be sticky like well-done pasta. You also could get good Libyan hash with the stamped emblazoned on the front I've been looking forever, but cannot find a recipe for good Honeywell please help.
Reply 1 year ago. I just want to ask if there is any way on how to make a dark honey into light one without breaking the thick viscosity. For future use: agave nectar has a great honey-like taste without the viscosity.
I use this instead of honey when I want to stir it into beverages, salad dressings, etc. By the way, if you do dilute it with water, you may need to add some more sugar like corn syrup and acid pure citric acid or lemon juice.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?
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Unanswered Questions. Science Experiments. Wiki User It depends on the moisture content and, more importantly, the temperature and pressure. You can change the viscosity of honey by adding water. While you will no longer have pure honey, the water will change its viscosity. However, this will vary with the type of honey you have. Asked in Organic Chemistry Whose viscosity is more honey or water?
Honey has a higher viscosity than water. Asked in Honey Is water more viscous than honey? No water is not more viscous that honey. The viscosity of honey is higher than the viscosity of water.Aib notizie 6/2001. aib-web
Asked in Computers, Organic Foods Does honey have a high or low viscosity? Honey has a high viscosity. Viscosity is a measurement of internal friction or thickness so honey would be more viscous than say water for example.
Asked in Chemistry Why does honey have a high viscosity?Jamie nadel
Yes, because viscosity is a resistance to flowing and honey flows very slowly. Asked in Chemistry Does honey contain high viscosity? Asked in Chemistry What is viscosity of a liquid is? The viscosity of a liquid is its resistance to flow. For example, honey has a high viscosity and water has a low viscosity. Viscosity is the thickness of fluid. The thinner it is the less Viscosity it has. Asked in Chemistry What flows faster honey or mustard? The viscosity of honey is lower. Asked in Chemistry Which is more viscous oil or honey?
Rheological Properties of Honey in a Liquid and Crystallized State
Honey is fairly consistent in its viscosity, but there are many different oils, of widely varying viscosity. Asked in Chemistry, Definitions Example of Viscosity?The rheological properties of honey are discussed separately for liquid and crystallized honey. The research methods used in both cases are characterized.
The basic mathematical models are shown, which describe the viscosity of honey in its liquid form depending on temperature and water content. In the case of crystallized honey, the rheological properties were linked to morphological features and crystalline phase content.
Results of characteristic experiments are presented, obtained during the shearing of crystallized suspension, that is, crystallized honey. Among other items, the dependency of equilibrium stress on shear rate, apparent viscosity on crystalline phase content, hysteresis loops as evidence that honey in its crystallized form is a rheologically unstable fluid.
Results of measurements under forced oscillation conditions are included and compared with results of rotational measurements. It was shown that the research method influences the obtained results of rheological studies. Honey Analysis. The rheological properties describe the behaviours of matter under tensions resulting from external forces.
Each real matter, whether a solid, liquid or gas, strains when exposed to external forces. We distinguish elastic, plastic and viscous strains. Plastic strain is permanent and remains even after the external force is gone. Viscous strain, also known as flow, is characterized by a constant increase in strain under constant stress. Generally, non-Newtonian fluids are divided into rheologically stable, rheologically unstable and viscoelastic.
They demonstrate partially viscous, elastic and plastic properties. Rheology is tasked with the description of these properties. The rheological properties of honey are analysed mainly within the aspect of fulfilling the basic production processes such as hydraulic transport, mixing, heating or batching [ 1 ].
Viscosity is additionally one of the parameters of quality assessment of the product [ 2 ]. In multiple published reports on the rheological properties of honey, there is a common observation that it is in fact a Newtonian fluid [ 3 — 6 ].
A few publications hint at the existence of a clear thixotropic effect, although it is only seen in certain types of honey such as heather honey or the Manuka honey from New Zealand [ 57 ]. It needs to be stressed, however, that such reports are with regard to honey in its liquid state also known as strained honey. The parameters, which significantly influence the dynamic viscosity of the analysed product, are temperature and water content [ 589 ].
Bee honey is a concentrated aqueous solution of sugars. Due to this, most of the obtained types of honey undergo crystallization when in storage [ 10 ]. The crystallization process results directly from the chemical composition, as in almost all types of honey glucose are present in its supersaturated state [ 511 ].
Melezitose can also undergo crystallization in honeys. The resulting solid phase is a glucose monohydrate, which has various geometrical forms in crystallization [ 51213 ]. Honey after crystallization is called set honey and is a two-phase structure, semisolid, which substantially varies in its properties from the liquid state—strained honey [ 514 ].
Literature regarding the rheological properties of crystallized honey is surprisingly modest. There are a few studies, which are just starting to analyse the issue [ 13141617 ]. These studies only identify the specific rheological properties of crystallized honeys, as one of the characteristics which change after the crystallization process.
This analysis is an attempt at the identification of the rheological properties of honey both in its liquid state and in its crystallized form. The performance of this task has forced an analysis of additional issues, which determine the rheological characteristics. These are the measurement of the amount of solid phase formed after crystallization of the honey and its morphological characteristics.
These issues are relatively seldom analysed in literature [ 14 ]. Rheological measurements can be conducted using two different measurement techniques: rotational rheometers and capillary rheometers. Due to the speed, comfort of use and the possibility of measurement in wide spectrums of shear rate, rotational rheometers are in popular use at present.
The used measurement systems are cone-plate, plate-plate or cylinder-cylinder in a Searle- or Couette-type rheometric flow.During these challenging times, we guarantee we will work tirelessly to support you. We will continue to give you accurate and timely information throughout the crisis, and we will deliver on our mission — to help everyone in the world learn how to do anything — no matter what.
Thank you to our community and to all of our readers who are working to aid others in this time of crisis, and to all of those who are making personal sacrifices for the good of their communities. We will get through this together. Viscosity can be defined as the measurement of a liquid's resistance to flow, also referred to as a liquid's internal friction. Consider water and molasses.
Water flows relatively freely, while molasses is less fluid. Because molasses is more resistant to flow, it has a higher viscosity than water. While there are a number of methods from which to choose in deciding how to measure viscosity, perhaps the least complicated involves dropping a ball into a clear container of the liquid for which you are trying to determine viscosity.
To measure viscosity, fill a graduated cylinder with the liquid to be measured and mark the liquid's positions at the top and bottom of the cylinder.
Drop a marble into the liquid and start a stopwatch, then record the time it takes for the ball to drop between the marks. Calculate the velocity of the sphere, then plug the information you've gathered into the viscosity formula to get your answer! To learn more about the concept of viscosity, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No. Log in Facebook Loading Google Loading Civic Loading No account yet?
Article Edit. Learn why people trust wikiHow. This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff, MA. She has conducted survey work for marine spatial planning projects in the Caribbean and provided research support as a graduate fellow for the Sustainable Fisheries Group.
There are 6 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. Explore this Article Understanding Viscosity. Measuring Viscosity. Tips and Warnings. Things You'll Need. Related Articles. Article Summary.Honey consists primarily of different kinds of sugar plus water.Is a Realistic Honey Simulation Possible? 🍯
The main carbohydrates are fructose and glucose, followed by maltose and sucrose. The sampled honey is a commercially available, liquid bottled type produced in Western Europe. It is a blend from floral honeys of varying origins and contains three parts carbohydrates and one part water.
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Viscosity of Flower Honey Blended Commercially available sweetener. Description Honey consists primarily of different kinds of sugar plus water. Viscosity Table — Measurement data Temp. Viscosity [mPa. Flower Honey blended - dynamic viscosity and density over temperature.
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